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Understanding Male Reproduction

In contrast to the female whose sex organs are entirely inside the body, the male reproductive organs, also called the genitals, sit both inside and outside his body and include

The testicles (sometimes called testes) are oval-shaped organs a little smaller than a golf ball that hang from the base of a man’s torso.

They rest in a sac of skin known as the scrotum, located beneath the penis. They make the sperm that fertilizes a woman’s egg to create a baby as well as make hormones such as testosterone.

Alongside the testicles are the epididymis and the vas deferens, which make up the duct system of the male reproductive organs.

The vas deferens is a muscular tube that passes upward alongside the testicles and transports the sperm-containing fluid called semen. The epididymis is a set of coiled tubes (one for each testicle) that connects to the vas deferens.

The penis is actually made up of two parts: the shaft and the glans. The shaft is the main part of the penis and the glans is the tip (sometimes called the head).

At the end of the glans is a small slit or opening, which is where semen and urine exit the body through the urethra. The inside of the penis is made of a spongy tissue that can expand and contract.

The accessory glands, including the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm.

The seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens to the side of the bladder. The prostate gland, which produces some of the parts of semen, surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder.

The urethra is the channel that carries the semen to the outside of the body through the penis. The urethra is also part of the urinary system because it is also the channel through which urine passes as it leaves the bladder and exits the body.

The Male Reproductive System

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is the collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system.

The major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries (in females), testes (in males), thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

As part of the endocrine system, there are four main hormones that are responsible for sperm production.

In men, LH works together with FSH to produce sperm.


This is produced in the pituitary gland and plays a vital role in the production of sperm and stimulates the germ cells.


This is released from the hypothalamus and plays a vital role in human sperm production and it coordinates the release of the other hormones that are also involved in the production of sperm, Specifically luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Testosterone plays a major role and men’s testicles start producing more and more of this important hormone. Testosterone is another hormone that stimulates the production of sperm. It is also very important for the development of the male reproductive tissues like prostate and testes.

Sperm Production Cycle

every sperm is sacred

Sperm cells are essentially concentrated packets of genetic material (DNA) with a propeller designed to get them to the egg. The mature sperm cell, however, is an endpoint. It takes almost 2 ½ months of timed development to produce a single sperm cell.

Once sperm cells are made, they begin the long process of maturation, which takes, on average 72 days to complete. This concept plays a central role in defining therapy for men with fertility issues.

Areas of Practice

Using Either Direct Or Partner Network Services

Industry Statistics

success rates for male infertility treatments

Statistics reference: WHO • 2018 -2019


Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection


Testicular Extraction

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